Robinson, 37, made 375 top-flight appearances for Leeds, Tottenham, Blackburn and the Clarets, as well as featuring for England on 41 occasions.
Robinson said: “Unfortunately, my back problem returned towards the end of last season and has prevented me being ready for the start of the new season. Taking everything into consideration I’ve decided to announce my retirement.
“I have been very fortunate to play the game I love for so many years and make it my career.
“I would like to sincerely thank all my family and friends who have stood by me throughout my playing career.
“I have been very lucky to play for four very special football clubs and my country. I would like to say a huge thank-you to the supporters and staff of every one as I was able to build a very special relationship with each.
“I would like to say thank-you to Sean Dyche, Billy Mercer, the staff and players at Burnley who gave me the chance to play in the premier league again at 37 years old.
“I wish them and all my former clubs the very best of luck for next season.”
Burnley boss Dyche, who signed Robinson in January, 2016 after he had spent a few months out of the game, said: “Paul played a big part in what we have achieved over the past couple of seasons – literally at times last season – and always as an important member of the group.
“He made a big contribution during his time at Burnley and we would all like to wish him well in his next venture, as well as making sure that he will always welcome back at Turf Moor.”